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Ancient Art

Cult relief of Zeus Kyrios-Baalshamin

A.D. 31/32

Limestone

52 × 35 × 9 cm (20 1/2 × 13 3/4 × 3 9/16 in.)
Yale-French Excavations at Dura-Europos
1935.45
Geography: 
Excavated in Dura-Europos, Syria
Status: 
On view*
Culture: 
Syrian, Dura-Europos
Period: 
1st century A.D.
Classification: 
Sculpture
Provenance: 

Excavated by the Yale-French Excavations at Dura-Europos (block N8-7 W, Z1, Temple of Zeus Kyrios), present-day Syria, 1928–37; Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn.

Bibliography: 

Michael I. Rostovtzeff, Dura-Europos and Its Art, 1st (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1938), 65, pl. 11:1, ill.

Harald Ingholt, Palmyrene and Gandharan Sculpture: An Exhibition Illustrating the Cultural Interrelations Between the Parthian Empire and Its Neighbors West and East, Palmyra and Gandhara, exh. cat. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Art Gallery, 1954), n.p., no. 16, ill.

Ann Perkins, The Art of Dura-Europos, 1st ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973), 72–79, pl. 30, ill.

Susan B. Downey, The Excavations at Dura-Europos, Final Report III (Los Angeles: Insititue of Archaeology, University of California Los Angeles, 1977), 31–34, 208–210, no. 10, pl. 4, fig. 10.

Christa Bauchenss-Thüriedl, Erika Simon, and Ingrid Krauskopf, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, 8 vols. (Zurich: Artemis, 1981–97), vol. 3, p. 75-76, no. 1, pl. 62; vol. 8, p. 386, no. 159, pl. 250.

Handbook of the Collections, exh. cat. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Art Gallery, 1992), 271, ill.

Hans Erik Mathiesen, Sculpture in the Parthian Empire : a study in chronology, 2 volumes (Aarhus Denmark: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 1992), 197, no. 174, vol. 1, appendix II, pp.78–80, fig. 54.

Lucinda Dirven, The Palmyrenes of Dura-Europos: A Study of Religious Interaction in Roman Syria (Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1999), 212–218, 219–220, pl. 3.

Lisa R. Brody and Gail Hoffman, eds., Dura-Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity (Boston: McMullen Museum of Art, 2011), 349, no. 42, pl. 42.

Jennifer Chi and Sebastian Heath, eds., Edge of Empires: Pagans, Jews, and Christians at Roman Dura-Europos, exh. cat. (New York: Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, 2011), 14, no. 35, ill.

Lisa R. Brody and Carol Snow, “Quarries at the Crossroads: Sourcing Limestone Sculpture from Dura-Europos and Palmyra at Yale,” Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin (2019): 83, fig. 5.

Note: This electronic record was created from historic documentation that does not necessarily reflect the Yale University Art Gallery’s complete or current knowledge about the object. Review and updating of such records is ongoing.