None Are Free Until All Are Free Maker: Joyce J. Scott (American, born 1948)


American Decorative Arts

Not on view

Joyce J. Scott draws upon Native American beadwork techniques, Yorùbá artistic traditions, current events, and folklore to create a body of work that addresses issues of gender and the Black experience in America. Her confrontational and assertive jewelry and sculptures undermine the stereotype of beadwork as a docile, feminine handcraft. These explorations into the political agency of craft contributed to her being named a fellow of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation in 2016. At the center of this necklace from 2006 is a partially naked figure chained at the foot and neck. The figure is accompanied by stylized flowers, overscale body parts, and letters forming the phrase “None Are Free until All Are Free.” Do the godlike head and arm convey freedom, per the words woven through the necklace, or do they depict a captor attempting to restrain the figure? Scott’s composition is deliberately ambivalent, echoing the often-contradictory legacy of slavery in the United States.


Hand-stitched glass and plastic beads


14 × 9 × 2 in. (35.56 × 22.86 × 5.08 cm)

Credit Line

Janet and Simeon Braguin Fund

Accession Number



21st century


Note: This electronic record was created from historic documentation that does not necessarily reflect the Yale University Art Gallery’s complete or current knowledge about the object. Review and updating of records is ongoing.



Mobilia Gallery, Cambridge, Mass., 2006–08; by purchase to Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn., 2008
  • John Stuart Gordon, American Glass: The Collections at Yale (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Art Gallery, 2018), 294–95, no. 154
  • "Acquisitions 2009," Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin (2009), 132
  • John Stuart Gordon, "Time in a Bottle," Antiques 185, no. 5 (September/October 2018), 95, ill
Object copyright
Additional information

Object/Work type

human figures (visual works), necklaces


Fabric label with "Joyce J Scott" in script affixed behind Velcro closure

Technical metadata and APIs


Open in Mirador

View IIIF manifest

The International Image Interoperability Framework, or IIIF, is an open standard for delivering high-quality, attributed digital objects online at scale. Visit to learn more

Linked Art

API response for this object

Linked Art is a Community working together to create a shared Model based on Linked Open Data to describe Art.