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    LATITUDE: 30°48'14"N / LONGITUDE: 34°46'19"E, October 9, 2011. Ancient walled farm, previously believed to be Nabataean but probably Byzantine (fifth century AD). The farm is made up of agricultural terraces within the bed of a seasonal stream. Ancient agriculture in the Negev, as well as the Bedouin agriculture that evolved from it, are based on the principle of “runoff irrigation.” Small terraces act as dams that channel and collect floodwater into irrigation basins. The water sinks deep into the soil and is stored there, rising to the surface over a long period. In an area with less than 100 millimeters per annum of rain, such irrigation systems could collect 4 times this amount and thus support cereal cultivation. There are thousands of kilometers of such terraced wadis in the Negev. The small protrusions of earth on the slope at top left are ancient tuleilat al-ʽēnab (Arabic, “grape mounds,”). The structure at the lower right would have been used for dwelling and storage., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 30°42'41"N / LONGITUDE: 35°12'35"E, October 9, 2011. Military maneuver and recreational off-road vehicle tracks along the ancient copper-smelting site in the lower Aravah. The plateau, with shallow dark copper-rich gravel, records the traces of vehicles as they pass over the land, removing the upper layer to expose the lighter subsoil. Four kilometers to the east of the site, and directly on the Jordanian border, is Moshav ʽEin Yahav, initially founded in 1950 as an agricultural experimentation station by members of Naḥal, a movement to promote the settlement of arid areas of Israel. The station was subsequently abandoned and later, in 1953, veterans of the Israeli army settled. In the early 1960s the settlement was civilianized as a moshav., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°15'40"N / LONGITUDE: 34°26'23"E, October 10, 2011. Ploughed field in advance of planting. ʽEin Habesōr (lit., “spring of the Besor”) moshav. This moshav was established in 1982 with some of the residents from Sadot, an Israeli community in the Sinai Desert evacuated after the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty in 1979. The moshav is on the site of the former village and pasturelands of ʽArab al-Glāʽi, of the Tarabīn tribe, evacuated in the winter of 1948. The exacting straight lines of the field are indicative of Israeli mechanized plowing. Dark hosepipes, running through the fields in intervals along every ninth row, are part of the drip irrigation system developed in 1965 at Kibbutz Ḥatzerim (lit., “farmyards”), near Beersheba. This region of the southern Negev, adjoining the border with Gaza, is mainly dedicated to large-scale commercial farming., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 30°27'41"N / LONGITUDE: 34°58'40"E, November 14, 2011. Bedouin encampment beside a seasonal stream in the Aravah desert mountains leading to the Ramon Crater. In this arid zone, Bedouin herders search for areas near seasonal waterways in order to tap into the yearly rainfall, which allows for the growth of vegetation for their herds to graze. The geological alluvium is a loose, unconsolidated soil or sediment that has been eroded, reshaped by water, and re-deposited in a non-marine setting. The larger particles of sand and gravel here are comprised largely of flint., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°1'11"N / LONGITUDE: 34°43'50"E, October 9, 2011. Remains of the demolished home of ʽAwad Abu Ḥbak, of the ʽAzāzme tribe, in the vicinity of the village of Bīr Haddāj. The home was demolished in 2006 and the family forced to move further east. Signs of heavy vehicles and scouring of the area are visible, with the structural remains and belongings strewn about the site. In 1978, Abu Ḥbak and the other members of Bīr Haddāj were evacuated by the military. In 2004, as part of the Israeli government’s “Abu Basma Plan” to sedentarize the Bedouins of the Negev, Bīr Haddāj and eight other Bedouin villages were officially recognized as Bedouin townships. But with the provisions of the plan deemed unacceptable to the Bedouins, no family has purchased land in accordance with the new mandate of the Israeli law., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 30°38'0"N / LONGITUDE: 34°50'41"E, October 9, 2011. Mineral deposits along the slope descending into the Makhtesh Ramōn (Ramon Crater). Makhtesh is a Hebrew term for a geological formation unique to the Negev, in which steep walls of resistant rock surround a deep and closed valley, usually drained by a wadi. One of the properties of the makhtesh is that it has limited vegetation and soil, but contains a variety of colored rocks and diverse flora and fauna. Erosion quickly removes the softer minerals, which are washed away from under the harder rocks, which in turn eventually collapse under their own weight and form a crater-like valley. This slope was previously an active volcano and the black stains are remnants of the volcanic rock from the Early Cretaceous Age. Rich in manganese, iron oxide, and copper, the base of the Makhtesh Ramōn has been extensively mined in the years since the establishment of the state., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°17'5"N / LONGITUDE: 34°45'43"E, November 22, 2011. Abandoned ammunitions storage along the city perimeter of Beersheba. The image shows the earthwork mounds that protect each storage facility, and the road that winds between the three sections of this particular installation, comprised of eighteen separate compartments in total. Constructed in the British Mandate era and subsequently used by the Israelis, the site was eventually deemed to be too near to the outer city limits of Beersheba, and was fully vacated in 2004., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 30°54'5"N / LONGITUDE: 34°45'33"E, October 9, 2011. Experimental runoff farm near the Sde Boker (lit., “herding fields”) kibbutz. This farm, which employs ancient Byzantine (previously thought to be Nabataean) irrigation systems, was created in around 2000 and sponsored by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. The site is a few hundred meters upstream from the Avdat farm, an experimental farm that was revitalized and reconstructed from ancient ruins in the 1950s by a team of botanists and archaeologists led by the Israeli botanist Michael Evenari. The fields, organized in a grid, have been erected beside the streambed with an irrigation channel dug through the middle to direct water through the center of the garden and along the rimmed rectangular basins−each with a raised mound at its perimeter to optimize retention. The farm is still in use although at the time the photograph was taken it appears quite desolate., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°21'41"N / LONGITUDE: 34°45'54"E, October 9, 2011. Planting of the GOD TV Forest on the former land of the Bedouin village of al-ʽAraqīb. GOD TV, in concert with the JNF, is planting one million trees in Israel to fulfill their millenarian prophecy to prepare the land for the return of the messiah. Along the streambed on the top left of the image, in the white area, is an old Bedouin cistern. In the lower right-hand quadrant of the image are the remains of the two-room home of Jaber al-Qawāsme, a member of the ʽAlamāt tribe, who fled his home with his family following a massacre in 1948 nearby. The house was demolished in 1948/49 so as to remove evidence of habitation and to lessen the impetus for the family to return. Villagers in the surrounding area fled in rapid succession following the news, narrated by a survivor, of a massacre of fourteen Bedouin men by a local Jewish gang in October 1948 in a house less than a kilometer from this site (the witness died of his wounds the following day)., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 30°45'14"N / LONGITUDE: 35°10'31"E, November 22, 2011. Impact craters and wreckage of two Israeli Air Force (IAF) Skyhawk planes used as targets along a simulated airstrip in the live-fire zone of the Naḥal Masor/Wādi Munshār (Heb./Arabic). The IAF uses dummy bombs−weights without explosives or detonation−to target the airstrip from above and register the accuracy. The hundreds of pockmarks across the soft surface of the canyon floor register the bombing runs. This portion of the Aravah desert lies below sea level and at the base of the tributaries of the Aravah stream. The nearby Moshav ʽEin Ḥatzeva was founded in 1965 by Naḥal soldiers to support Jewish settlement growth throughout Israel, particularly in the more remote areas of the country. Three years later, it became a civilian moshav., from the series Desert Bloom