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    LATITUDE: 31°19'43"N / LONGITUDE: 34°53'40"E, October 9, 2011. Grading earthworks in preparation for the new settlement of Carmit, intended to promote the Judaization of the Negev. The settlement follows the model of Blueprint Negev, a JNF initiative launched in the 1980s with the aim of bringing a quarter of a million members of the Jewish community to settle the Negev. Israeli and Jewish–American environmental groups argue that the current development plan strains water resources, as well as the fragile relationship between the state and its Bedouin citizens. Less than a kilometer to the east of the development is the Laqiyye Bedouin township, established in 1990 as one of the seven official townships in the Negev to sedentarize the Bedouins. Laqiyye has the lowest average income of all the townships, and is comprised mainly of Bedouins from al-Saniʽ, of the Tiyāha tribe, which was present on the land of Carmit prior to the establishment of the State of Israel., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°3'25"N / LONGITUDE: 34°50'48"E, November 22, 2011. Earthworks in the construction of the Ariel Sharon Training Complex. Each of the separate tiers, graded above the desert floor, encircled by dirt paths that will become the main artery, is to support the foundation of a new building within the complex. Unofficially named ʽIr HaBahadim (lit., “city of training bases”), this mega-base is currently under construction between the development town of Yeruḥam and Beersheba, and is projected to become the Negev’s third largest city. Planned for 30,000 army personnel, it is scheduled to open in 2015., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°16'17"N / LONGITUDE: 34°59'48"E, November 22, 2011. Remains of the foundations of the homestead of Ḥasan a-Sarāyʽa, of the Abu Jwēʽid tribe, on the outskirts of the unrecognized village of Bāt al-Sarāyʽa. The buildings were recently demolished; debris littered about the site indicates a forced evacuation. The area is now considered a closed military live-fire training zone. Despite the evacuation, two small structures—whose tin sheeting is held down with rocks—have been reconstructed atop the remains. The height of the structures casts its shadow upon the land. The site is on the land of Shlalīn, a Bedouin community evacuated in the aftermath of Operation Yoʼav., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°6'46"N / LONGITUDE: 34°24'10"E, November 13, 2011. Intersecting seismic test lines in the Ḥalutza Sands of the Palestinian village of Nabaʽāt, of the Tarabīn tribe, evacuated in 1948 in the wake of Operation Yoʼav, an Israeli military operation carried out from October 15 to 22, 1948, under the command of Yigal Allon which had as its ultimate goal to conquer the entire Negev. The intersecting lines are seismic test lines, part of a large number of parallel cuts that divide this remote corner of the desert into distinct oil exploration zones. Oil was drilled for in the late 1980s but no commercial quantities were found., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°8'7"N / LONGITUDE: 35°12'25"E, November 22, 2011. Evaporation ponds at the Arad Phosphate Mine. Resources in the Negev include copper, iron, manganese, phosphates, and uranium. The Arad facility mines the highest grade phosphates, with estimates of between thirty and sixty thousand tons of uranium contained in low-level phosphate ores, much of which is extracted in the three mines of the parent company, Rotem Amfert Negev Ltd. Established in 1952, initially as Negev Phosphates, the company’s Arad site is adjacent to the Dimona Nuclear Research Center. The state acknowledges the existence of the site, but maintains a policy of nuclear ambiguity, neither confirming nor denying that it contains nuclear weapons. Constructed in secret (beginning in 1958) with French assistance, outside the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspection regime, the airspace over the nuclear research center is closed, and the area around it is heavily guarded and fenced off. Bedouin tribes are kept 15–20 kilometers from the fence., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 30°25'53"N / LONGITUDE: 34°56'26"E, November 22, 2011. Traces of flooding and heavy vehicle paths alongside the north–south Highway 40 between Mitzpe Ramon and Eilat. The area shown is located within a seasonal stream in the Aravah desert mountains leading to the Ramon Crater. The tracks running by the side of the road are used by heavy vehicles and military convoys, and have shifted away the upper layer of alluvium which has been eroded, reshaped by water, and deposited again. The larger particles of sand and gravel here are comprised mainly of flint., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°06'60"N / LONGITUDE: 34°43'4"E, October 9, 2011. Abu Asa family homestead in the vicinity of the recognized Bedouin town of Bīr Haddāj, of the ʽAzāzme tribe. The dark circular stains in the center of the image indicate the former presence of sire, livestock pens for camels, goats, and sheep. Staining is created by the bodily fluids of the herds that were kept there. Each year, the pens are shifted and the former space disinfected by fire. The stains remain on the ground for several years, the gradient of their saturation indicating how many rainy seasons have washed them away. Such traces help gauge the minimum duration of their presence in years. In 1978 Bīr Haddāj was declared a closed military area, forcing its inhabitants to relocate to Wādi al-Naʽīm, near Beersheba. In 1994, when they learned that land on which they had previously settled was no longer used for military purposes, but had been converted into a moshav, they returned and settled beside the moshav., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°1'38"N / LONGITUDE: 34°33'8"E, November 13, 2011. Pita (target to simulate enemy installations) in a closed live-fire military training zone. The pita, created by piling up earth mounds, is reminiscent of the ancient archaeological remains that are also scattered throughout this part of the desert. The live-fire zone, established on former land of the village of Subḥiyeen, of the ʽAzāzme tribe, is several hundred meters away from the archaeological site at Rehovot/Ruḥeiba (Heb., Arabic)., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°27'3"N / LONGITUDE: 34°36'55"E, October 10, 2011. Sown and irrigated wheat fields of Moshav Yoshivia. The fields are watered by a drip irrigation system developed in Israel that enables the water to be effectively distributed to the root of the plant, thus economizing in arid areas such as the Negev. The fields lie between three moshav-type villages built after 1948: Yoshivia, established in 1950 for immigrants from Algeria; Zruʽa, established in 1953 for immigrants from Morocco; and Talmei Bilu, also established in 1953, for immigrants from Kurdistan. They are built on lands previously part of the villages of al-Muḥarraqa, al-Gatātwe, and al-ʽUrūr, cultivated by the Tiyāha tribe, which was expelled in the winter of 1948–49 as part of Operation Yoʼav. Ownership of the area is currently claimed by the Bedouins., from the series Desert Bloom
    LATITUDE: 31°18'50"N / LONGITUDE: 34°40'58"E, October 4, 2011. Plantation work for the Ambassador Forest organized by the JNF, using the method of “savannization”: a mixture of sparsely scattered acacia or eucalyptus trees with bushes and grass between, as found in the savannah region. Irrigation comes from long terraces that collect rainwater, optimizing the water retention. The fields around the planted area are cultivated by Bedouins, and are distinguished by the shallow plowing or “scratching” technique of cultivation. The small spots within the field show where wheat was collected in previous years. The forest was planted atop the Bedouin village of Abu ʽAbdūn, of the Tiyāha tribe, evacuated and destroyed in the winter of 1948. The path, accompanied by a pair of shallow fences that run diagonally from lower left to top right through the center of the image, coincides with the planned route of a railway line, construction of which began in early 2012. The forested area has since been overridden., from the series Desert Bloom

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